The word “Baroque” had a critical meaning was primarily used in order to highlight the extremes of its emphasis. It is also derived by others through the verse term “Baroco” indicating a logical Scholastica, a hypothetically strenuous shape of syllogism. Particularly, the term was applied for describing its unusual redundancy as well as noisy plenty of details, which distinguishes sharply the obvious and moderate reasonableness of the Renaissance. “The Baroque art theories also began the seventh century with a dualistic response to the excesses of Mannerism, one camp reserving the importance of sensory data, the other camp emphasizing logical structure behind appearance” (Mark 135). Heinrich Wölfflin the art historian born in Switzerland (1864-1945) regenerated it in his Renaissance und Barock in 1888s; Baroque was recognized as “movement imported into mass” (Wölfflin 1964), an art antithetic to Renaissance art by Wölfflin. He did not do the same thing as modern writers distinguishing the Mannerism and Baroque art as well as he disregard the afterward phase, which was the academic Baroque ended in 18th century. French and English Writers did not start considering Baroque as a reputable study until German scholarship was made finest by Wölfflin’s persuasion.
Baroque painting is crucially connected with the cultural movement of Baroque. The movement is frequently recognized along with the Absolutism, the Counter Reorganization and Catholic Revitalization, but in non-absolutist and Protestant regions right through the Western Europe the significant Baroque art and architecture survive in order to underline its extensive attractiveness. Starting from around 16th century till the early 18th century which most significant and main paintings were made those are recognized today as Baroque painting. “Realism was no more a mere mirror reality than any other style and its relation qua style to phenomenal data … is as complex and difficult as that of Romanticism, the Baroque or Mannerism. So far as Realism is concerned, however, the issue is greatly confused by the assertions of both its supporters and opponents, that realists were doing no more than mirroring everyday reality” (Nochlin 14 & Wells 252). Great drama, affluent, deep color, and extreme light and dim shadows actually characterize the Baroque art. Baroque art is just opposite of the Renaissance art. Renaissance artists generally visualize the prior instant of an event happened, where Baroque artists visualize the dramatic moment of an action is happening. Bernini’s baroque David (made between1425 to 1430 presently located at Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence) visualized the moment of throwing the stone at the giant. Michelangelo’s, David (Made between 1501-1504. presently located at Galleria dell Accademia, Florence) in the High Renaissance is composed and still earlier than he battles Goliath. Baroque art was denoted to suggest the feeling and zeal rather than the quiet reasonableness that had been awarded at some stage in the Renaissance. Roman Catholic Church answered many questions in the ‘Council of Trent’ (1545–63, Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church), about the internal reorganization initiated by both Protestants and by those remaining within the Catholic Church, dictated the representational arts shortly and rather slanting passage in its verdicts. Critically, they disclose the astoundingly multidirectional nature of cultural exchanges … Baroque, 19th century architecture, 20th century architecture. Many clerical authors like Molanus inferred and explained this afterward, who claimed that the paintings and sculptures inside the church backgrounds should explain their subjects obviously and strongly, and with good manners, excluding the Mannerism’s stylistic blow. Mark postulates that “the new preoccupation with subjectivity in the last stages of the Baroque was accompanied by a loss of vigour in the academies (149).
Johannes Vermeer was a Dutch Baroque painter is one of the greatest Baroque painters of the Baroque period was expert in painting the exquisite, domestic interior pictures of middle class life. Throughout his life he was an extremely winning regional genre painter. He was never recognized as a wealthy painter, may be due to his few paintings. Vermeer’s influence is the evident in the Telfair’s painting in details like the open window at the top right and the small still life of a wine bottle and glass on the table (Telfair Museum of Art 112). Vermeer practiced his painting with slow and great care, utilized light colors and sometimes luxurious pigments, preferably with cornflower blue and yellow. He is exclusively famous because of his masterly handling and utilization of light in the painting. He was hardly stated on Dutch painting (Grand Theatre of Dutch Painters and Women Artists) of 17th century in the major source book of Arnold Houbraken. There is a doubt in some scholars regarding Vermeer’ belief in religion. Somebody identified him as Catholic, but he reflected his belief in the Eucharist through one of his paintings, The Allegory of Catholic Faith, made between 1670 and 1672. His greatest work the ‘Lady at the Virginals with a Gentleman’ (1662-65, Oil on canvas, Buckingham Palace, London) shown the Exaggerated perspective. This portrait also showed his eagerness in optics by the reflection in mirror above the lady at the virginals. Comparatively more remarkable and influential utilization of natural ultramarine is visualized in the ‘Girl with a Wineglass’ (1659-1660, oil on canvas, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Brunswick). He visualized the shadows of the red dress in a natural Ultramarine plus remaining application of blue paint layer, the red lake and vermilion on it obtains influential look of a little purpled, cold and crisped. Even after getting financially worst in 1672 Vermeer carried on using natural ultramarine bigheartedly, can be exemplified by the ‘Lady Seated at a Virginal’ (1670-1675, oil on canvas, The National Gallery), which indicated that he was being still delivered with substances by a collector.
It is clearly said that Johannes Vermeer was also familiar with the genre seenes that characrerise Dutch art of the seventeenth century. In fact, he produced an entire series of paintings before on of the greatest Dutch Borroque masters, MacEwen (Telfair Museum of Art 112).
Diego Velazquez was greatest painter of Spain and also one of the best artists of unsurpassed. Diego Velazquez was the technical master with his extremely unique style and on European art he could have had a larger influence than any other painter and is also approved as one of the greatest artists of the world. In 1634 he throne room in the new royal palace of Buen Retiro was decorated by Velazquez, which composed by noble horse riding portraits and battle’s scenes where Spanish troops are shown victorious. The portraits were the creation of the most high-status artists of the day together with Velazquez himself. Velazquez’s Surrender of Breda (1634, Museo del Prado) was one of the contribution among those oil paintings of the battle, where he visualized a high-minded Spanish general in receipt of the Flemish troops’ leader who had been defeated and blockaded at northern town in 1624. The fragility of griping and amazing range of sensations confined in the painting gives it the honor of the most renowned Spanish baroque’s composition of the history. The Maids of Honor (Las Meninas in 1656, Museo Del Prado) is an eye-catching collection of portraits of the noble family and the working situation of painting of Velazquez himself. Velasquez became the predecessor of the modern practice or direct oil painting through his excellent use of color in thin or thick, short or long, actually speedy and impulsive but in fact most competently designed strokes. He was a master of realistic painting and no painter has exceeded him in the capability to grab necessary characteristics and glue them on canvas through a few broad, certain strokes. Velasquez’ was recognized as “the painter’s painter” due to his enormous talent in amalgamating color, light, space, rhythm of line and mass in such a way that all have equal value. From the time when he taught, painters were led by Velasquez directly or indirectly in order to play original roles to the development of art. The Family of Philip IV, (1656, oil on canvas, Prado Museum, Madrid) a exceptional type of portrait of Diego Velázquez, in which he put the princes (Infanta) at the center surrounding two young ladies, a child, a dwarf, a dog and a tutor. Juan de Pareja was painted by Diego Velázquez (between July1649 and March 1650, oil on canvas, Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY). In this portrait he successfully applied the technique of using oil with an exclusive expression in the face of Juan de Pareja. Diego Velázquez made another excellent painting ‘Three Men at a Table, (Luncheon))’ (1618, oil on canvas, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia), where the painting represents two pomegranates and a piece of bread lies on a table roofed by a wrinkled cloth. Among the three People at the left there is an aged man and a young on the other side, and in the background, a cheery boy pours wine apparently into a jug. A white neck-band, a leather bag and, a sword on the right is also appeared in the background.
Willem van Haecht such a famous artist of gallery painting which is regarded as another sort of paintings strongly connected with Flemish Baroque. Willem van Haecht is the son of the landscape painter Tobias Verhaecht but he was renowned as a Flemish Baroque painter exclusively for his gallery pictures. Peter Paul Rubens taught him and between 1615 and 1619 he worked in Paris, and then taken a trip for about seven years on Italy. Afterward in 1626 and from 1628 onwards Van Haecht turned into a master in Antwerp’s ‘guild of St. Luke’ was the guardian of the Cornelis van der Geest’s possessed art collection. In allegorical words this collection is signified as the ‘Picture Gallery of Cornelis van der Geest’ (1628; Rubenshuis, Antwerp). At the left side the painting comprises several portraits of contemporaneous shapes, and from the left included Prince ‘W%u0142adys%u0142aw Vasa of Poland’, ‘Peter Paul Rubens’, ‘Infanta Isabel Clara of Spain’, ‘Archduke Albert of Austria’ and the host showing a picture. Apelles painting Campasp (1630, material pannel) is a great gallery work of Willem Van Haecht is such a art collection of17th-century appeared like a high room filled with spread out with paintings, traditional sculpture, sketches, prints and porcelain. However, this gallery is based on imagination: although a lot of these paintings do in fact subsist, they have never been a piece of the similar collection. Among all of Willem van Haecht’s paintings only three is surviving yet and one of which explain the center of a kunstkamer (picture gallery) showing the vacation of ‘Alexander the Great’ to the Apelles’ studio visualizing his business by painting Campaspe’s portrait. This is a famous painting both for this chronological tale, which was certainly deliberated to praise the both patron’s role and artist in generations’ eyes, since it is for the description of the kunstkamer itself.
Caravaggio another greatest Baroque painter is a successful humanist painter of the High Renaissance. His sensible approach for painting a human figure was lively and create spotlight radically before a dim backdrop. With his talent of Baroque art he surprised his generation and started a new episode in the painting history. Chiaroscuro light effects is frequently used in Baroque painting in order to play a scenes and Rembrandt, Vermeer, Le Nain and La Tour often use this approach in their works. We can exemplify The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq (in 1642, oil on canvas, 363 × 437 cm., 142.9 × 172.0 inches, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam) as a classic instance of Baroque art.
Trevi Fountain (1629-1662, Rome) painted by Nicola Salvi portrayed two much closer as well as larger views at night and at day. Among all of the Baroque fountains this one is the biggest, most ambitious, and most famed. The taming of the waters is the allegorical subject of this painting. Dropping water and stonework got a lively appearance. Next to the rear of the Palazzo Poli the fountain is placed and the two main stories is connected by a new frontage of Corinthian columns that was given to it, and flank a successful arc with a big niche representing the Neptune’s palace. In the central niche Neptune, the sea god, riding a winged chariot guided by tritons through the gushing waters. Winged horses tense the chariot and a pair of tritons led it. Salvi was commissioned by Pope Clement XII in order to design the fountain in 1730 and it was accomplished in 1762, which was recognized as the Trevi (tre vie) due to its place at the joint of three streets.