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The Social, Political, and Economic Development of Kenya

Kenya, Chile, and Jamaica have a long and interesting history of their development. The current paper will explore each of these states, which are located on different continents, and their great progress from achieving independence to the modern times. Thus, the analysis of the social, economic, and cultural issues of these countries will help to understand the features of each state in particular. By writing this paper, I hope to obtain an understanding of the progress of each country in social and economic areas. Such exploration will help me to see the diversity and similarity in their development. 

Due to the fact that each state is located on a different continent, the historical and social events, which impacted these countries, are also various. Jamaica is an island state that obtained independence in 1962. The main sectors of its economy are tourism, mining, agriculture, etc. The island was discovered by Christopher Columbus, and during its history it has been inhabited by Indians and Hispanics. Also, it was England's colony. The Republic of Kenya is a state in East Africa. The country became independent from Great Britain in 1963. The agriculture is Kenya’s major sector of economy. The country has the biggest airlines in whole Africa. Chile is a state located in South America. It achieved independence from Spain in 1818. The state has the most developed economy in South America. One of the main contributions to the economy of Chile is made by tourism. The state has a low rate of migration. 

According to the presented facts, the countries under analysis have similar areas of development and show notable progress in the social and economic areas. The further exploration of these states will help to learn about their peculiarities. In particular, the present paper will explore political, social, and economic issues of one of the presented states called Kenya. 

Kenya is one of the most amazingly beautiful countries in Africa. Its nature is rich and various. There are waterless deserts, mountains, forests, and lakes. In December 1963, Kenya became an independent state and was proclaimed a republic in 1964. The first ruler of Kenya was a veteran of the struggle for independence, the 72-year-old Jomo Kenyatta. He established a program of building the ‘democratic socialist African Kenya’. The main point of the program was the ‘Africanization’ of the country. It involved the displacement of non-blacks from management and economics areas. After the death of Kenyatta in August 1978, Daniel Moi became the governor of Kenya. In 1982, he formally established the country's one-party regime. In 1991, Moi, under internal and external pressure, agreed to the liberalization of the regime and the creation of opposition parties. On August 27, 2010, a constitution approved by referendum conducted on 4 August 2010 came into force. The new constitution limited some powers of the president, expanded the civil rights, and facilitated the land reform. Nowadays, the head of the state is the president elected by universal suffrage for a term of 5 years with the possibility of being re-elected. The current President of Kenya is Uhuru Kenyatta, the son of Kenya's first president Jomo Kenyatta. He was elected in the general election in March 2013. The Vice President is William Ruto. The Government of Kenya plays an active role in defining the main directions of economic development, but many industries are private property. 

Kenya's economy could be characterized as steadily growing. It is an agrarian country, but the economy differs from the economies of many other African countries. Several export crops are raised in Kenya; it has a modern tourism industry and advanced manufacturing industry. In the colonial period, manufacturing, trade, and agriculture commodities were in the hands of Europeans and Asians. The Government of independent Kenya contributed to the strengthening of Africans' role in all these areas. Approximately 80% of the working population is employed in agriculture that gives about 30% of GDP. The key areas of agriculture are located on the highlands in the central and western parts of the country and the coastal plains in the southeast. The irrigated area in the country is limited, and agricultural production is highly dependent on weather conditions. 

The share of the mining industry in GDP is small. The development of the manufacturing industry started during the colonial regime, earlier than in other countries. The main manufacturing industries are light industry, food, textile, and chemical industry. The major industrial centers of the country are Nairobi and Mombasa. The leading branch of the service sector is tourism. Kenya is annually visited by 1 million people, and the profit from tourism is one of the main types of income. The concept of ‘Safari’ was born in Kenya. Today, Kenya offers several types of safari such as classic (with hunting), Savannah travel, photo safari, and scuba safari. The national parks of the country attract many tourists. 

Kenya is a multiethnic country; more than fifty different ethnic groups live in the territory of the country. Peoples of Bantu make up 60% of the population. The second large group consists of Nilotic people. As in other African countries, the rate of natural population growth in Kenya is quite high – 32%. The average age of the population is 18.4 years, and 41% of the population are children and adolescents. Kenya has a high level of education, but the unemployment rate is also very high because many people cannot find jobs after graduation. English and Swahili are the official languages of the state. About 35% of the population professes Christianity. Also, there are Muslim, Hindu, and supporters of traditional beliefs. The government of the country actively supports the development of sport, and Kenyans are among the best athletes in the world. They have achieved tremendous success in athletics, jumping, and running. One of the greatest runners in the world Moses Kiptanui is a Kenyan athlete. Kenyan team repeatedly became the winner of the Olympic Games. Greeks, Romans, Arabs, and the Portuguese produced a significant impact on the culture of Kenyans. In the cities of Lamu and Pate, which are the oldest in equatorial Africa, the ruins of the ancient Arab bastions, ancient mosques, temples, and forts are located. Today, Kenyan leadership pays great attention to the spreading of the information technology in the country. The prospect of development is reflected in the strategic guide called Kenya Vision 2030. It is a general policy document, which was adopted in 2008 and is a program of development for 2008-2030. It is aimed at the transformation of Kenya into the industrialized country with an average income, which provides its citizens with high standards of living.

To conclude, the exploration of the political, social, and economic areas of Kenya shows progress in the development of the country. The government of Kenya changed the political strategy of the country. It is aimed at the democratic, social, political, and economic development, strengthening the national identity, protection of national interests, values, human rights, and security of the citizens and the state. The economic sector is steadily growing. Agriculture and tourism are the major spheres of the economic growth. The country has a high level of education; however, the unemployment rate is still high. Due to the social development, Kenya constantly wins prizes in the Olympic Games. The creation of the Kenya Vision 2030 guarantees further social and political development. The main objective of the government is to create a competitive international and prosperous Kenyan society with high living standards till 2030.  Due to the presented facts, it is obvious that Kenya made great success in the development from achieving independence till the modern times.

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