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The Impacts of Non-Governmental Agencies

1.1 Background

This subtopic will contain a brief background on the topic where it will bring up all the information, which would help in understanding the importance of the non-governmental agencies on the role that they play in restoring and ensuring human security. Globally, NGOs have developed a reach, and are expanding to a size, which is, unparalleled by most other organizations working within the field of human security (Clark 1991). Thus, the research will focus on the impacts which were brought by the non-governmental agencies in Haiti which stepped in to secure and ensure human security after Haiti was struck by an earthquake which was a threat to the people of Haiti. This study will identify the types of NGO’s operating in Haiti and describe the roles that each type of NGO plays. The study will also assess the roles that are performed and analyze the constraints that affect the performance of the roles as well as the factors that facilitate the achievement of these roles.

Human security is an important social issue since it ensures a better knowledge of all the evolving threats and risk which have an impact on human population (Weir, 2006), and the strengthened mobilization of all the actors who are mainly involved in the policy formulation on all aspects of human security of today like the non-governmental aspects of today.

1.2 Research Aim and Objectives

The research aims and objectives in this study are statements of mentions where they will inform the reader of the main intention of the study. All the variables, which will be, involved in the study will be identified. The objective of the study will be SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time bound) (Nachmias and Nachmias 1996).

The main aim focus of this study is to determine the impacts of Non-Governmental agencies on Human Security in Haiti which begun with the safety of people from the emerging security concerns which were growing at a very fast rate in the country immediately after the earthquake, which hit the country. Human security is more of human centered where its main focus is the general protection of individuals. Some of the most important dimensions of human security are the entailing of individual well-being and responses to the people’s needs when dealing with threat issues (Tadjbakhsh and Chenoy 2006). The state can also be protected against external aggression where human security expands the protection scope by including other threats which are very broad like infectious diseases, economic deprivation and environmental pollution (Schuller 2007).

1.3 Significance of the study

This subtopic will state why the study is significant since there is a gap in the research literature about the impacts of the non-governmental Agencies on human security. It will explain the importance and the purpose of the study.

The significance of the study will enable the reader understand the impacts on the non-governmental agencies on human security since a majority of the NGOs have been the main actors in ensuring human security from natural calamities. These include the case for the Haiti earthquake and other issues, which are a threat to the human security which can be brought up by the natural calamities (Shamsie 2006). The catastrophes include; health problems, forced eviction, or lack of food where a majority of the governmental organizations have failed to address the factors which leaves the NGOs to be the better placed organizations in dealing with human security since they are close to the people than the governmental agencies and organizations (Teegen, Doh and Vachani 2004).

Human security is very important in a country since it is considered to form a very important part of the well-being of a person, which makes it a development objective. If there is the lack of human security, then it would mean consequences to the economic growth and development. Like in the case of Haiti, where on 12th of January 2010 was hit by an earthquake, which was considered one of the deadliest in the whole world. People, after being affected by an earthquake, which is a natural calamity, faced human security issues like the lack of proper housing, food, lack of water, and other social amenities.

1.4 Scope and Limitations

This section will show the limitations of the study and the information that will be obtained from the questionnaires filled out by the respondents.

1.5 Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

The research will make use of both the theoretical and the conceptual framework on the impacts of the non-governmental agencies on human security in terms of the roles that the NGOs play in ensuring that human security is ensured. The conceptual and theoretical framework will enable us to be able to identify the research questions which need to be answered in the study and the problems, which need to be addressed, and solutions to be given to the problems.

The theoretical framework will guide the project since it will be mainly cantered on the understanding of all the themes, which are important in the literature, which is related to the NGOs and the Human Security. The contextual framework of this study will show how the research problem would be resolved. The conceptual framework will identify all the research variables in the study and describe all the relationships, which exist between all the variables, which are identified in the research, which are based on the stimulus and the response (Nachmias and Nachmias 1996). The variables in the study will determine the statistical approach to be used in the analysis of the relationship.

The conceptual and theoretical framework will identify the research questions that are important to be answered in the study, as well as, solutions to be given to the problems.

1.6 Research questions

The research questions will be the main questions, which will guide the whole study since they will be used. This dissertation will be based on three main questions:

  1. What reasons make the NGOs want to get involved in human security?
  2. What are the current barriers, which the NGOs face while trying to play their roles in the human security?
  3. What ability do the NGOs have in addressing all the threats to human security?

1.7 Hypothesis

The hypothesis in this study will be a statement, which will show there, exists a significant difference between the variables. The hypothesis in this study will be that the non-governmental agencies have brought in positive impacts on human security, which is based, on the case for the Haiti earthquake. This hypothesis is to be examined in the study as well as the general perceptions and experiences with NGOs.

The hypothesis to be examined in this study is a 2-tailed experimental where the null hypothesis

Ho: p = 0.5

Where we will test it against the alternative hypothesis

Ha: p ≠ 0.5

Which is a binomial setting where N= total number of participants interviewed and p = 0.5

1.8 Organization of the Study

This section will give the general structure of the dissertation including a brief summary of what to expect in the chapters of the dissertation so as to give the reader an idea of what is contained in each chapter

2.0 Literature review

The Literature Review is the second chapter of the dissertation, which is very essential in research on the impacts of the non-governmental agencies on human security since it will give a very comprehensive review on all the knowledge status on the topic. It will be a collective review which would be supported by data which is relevant from other researchers and scholars’ work on the topic which will be properly cited.

This literature review is very important because the issue of human security has become a global problem and is people centered. The Human Security problem normally begins with the safety of people and security concerns, which are increasing at a drastic rate in most countries (Nelson 1998). Human security has become a major threat to so many countries and led to economic recessions, which have generally affected people (Schuller 2009). The study will seek to illustrate the manner in which the NGO’s coordinate their activities in order to make important make important contribution to human security. These institutions must be implicated in serious initiatives of action on human security (Mack 2005). This chapter will outline the existing research as to the role, which is played by the NGOs on human security. It will also show how the research of the dissertation can build on the and also relate to the existing research. Human security is a fundamental issue, which is mainly concerned with helping people to deal with threats, which are unforeseeable (Riddell 2007). The Non-Governmental agencies are well suited in the action of human security mainly because of the willingness that the Non-governmental agencies have in addressing the human security issues. These issues include the presence of natural calamities and disasters (David and Nazneen 2009), like the earthquake which hit Haiti in 2010 where the number of NGOs working in the country after the disaster was estimated to be more than 10,000 in numbers according to Bill Clinton. These NGOs often face many challenges in the addressing of human security like the aid monies cyclical nature which may be as a result of the high networking costs which are very high (Dupuy 2010).

The review of the literature will be further subdivided into several subtopics so as to make the topic to be easily understood by the reader of the dissertation.

2.1 NGOs in Human Security

This section will look at NGOs as independent actors which exist apart from the governmental organizations in addressing human security issues.

2.2 The Contributions on NGOs to Human Security

This part of the dissertation will consider the size of the NGOs and their reach to the people, the comparative advantages of the NGOs, the willingness of the NGOs in addressing all the issues, which are a threat to the human security, which other governmental agencies have overlooked. Also the Ability that the NGOs have in an attempt to address political and transnational threats to the human security, and the ability that the NGOs have in making a long-term contribution towards the human security.

2.3 The Current Barriers That the NGOs Face While Playing Their Roles in the Human Security

This section will highlight the challenges that the NGOs face when they are ensuring that there is human security in a country.

2.4 NGOs Involvement in Human Security Work

This section will give the reasons as to why the NGOs participate or have been involved in the ensuring of human securities in many countries.

3.0 Methodology

Qualitative and quantitative approaches will be used based on three main areas: the services and conditions in the Haiti IDP camps; the level of understanding of the Haiti residents and their direct involvement with the committees managing the camps; and the interviews which were done on the committee representatives.

3.1 Research Design

This research does not involve any participants who are unable to give an informed consent and all the participants will complete a consent form to ensure that all participants are above the age of 18 years. The main purpose of this methodology will be able to measure the general public’s perceptions, attitudes on the impacts of. The survey will be designed that all questions are forced-choice.  This allows for better statistical measures and that the conclusions drawn will be more accurate.  The survey that will be used for this particular research will already have had its validity proven.  I will establish reliability by sampling a diverse population of internet users who are both men and women.

This study will be mainly based on a primary research. Most data will be obtained through the use of structured questionnaires where the data will be got directly from the participants of the study Its statistical analysis and the conclusions will be purely based on the works of many other authors, scholars, and academics that have made reviews and their conclusions on the conceptual understanding on the topic which could be deemed useful in the study.

I intend to conduct online interviews with some committee representatives and other people where I intent to get their views on the impacts of the NGOs in the Haiti earthquake where from the data, I will be able to analyze their responses. The main reason as to why the internet is an appropriate place to conduct the survey is because very many people are able to access the internet at work and also in their homes. This will enable the researcher obtain a very high response rate from the participants since very many people can be contacted within a very short time. More so, it is also very cheap since there will be no travelling, and there will be no fieldwork in the Haiti community, which will be involved, and it will save a lot of time.

3.2 Sample Frame

This section of the dissertation would show the total number of participants who will have participated fully in the interview of the study. This shows that they will be the respondents who will have fully completed the consent form and the questionnaire and returned them since a participant has the right to withdraw from the interview without having to give a reason. The participants of the study will be internet users who will be selected randomly and contacted through their emails and the social; media like Facebook.

3.3 Data Collection Method

In this section, it will indicate the data collection procedure by describing in details how the study was replicated all the materials, which were used in the study to obtain adequate information to be used in the study. The data in the dissertation will be collected by the use of an online questionnaire (Appendix A) which will be composed of 3 general questions, 10 Likert-type questions, and 7 open ended questions. The general questions will be based on general issues like the age of the participant, the gender, and the occupation of the participant. The Likert type questions are questions, which are aimed at getting the participant’s level of satisfaction regarding the impacts that the NGOs both local and international had on the Haiti case in the ensuring of human security. The respondents will provide their personal opinions and views regarding the impacts of the NGOs on human security and some ethical problems, which come, as a result.

The survey will be a self-report questionnaire and will be voluntary. All participants will be contacted through email, and the social sites like Facebook. The participants will complete the online questionnaire and the consent form and return them to an email address, which will be sent to them. The respondents will be required to give in their own opinions, which are believed to be free of any third party interruption, which is the reason as to why the participants have to sign in an informed consent form to ensure that they are not coerced to take part in the study since participation is voluntary.

Identification of the Study Variables

The study will comprise of both independent Variables (IV) and the depended variables (DV). The dependent variable in this research will be the variable, which will be measured, selected, or even manipulated in the study to be able to determine if there exists any relationship to the phenomenon, which is observed in the study. The dependent variable in the research will be the factor, which will be observed because of the survey and measured, to determine the effect of the independent variable. Moreover, the dependent variable will include the response of the participants concerning the Haiti case where the Non-governmental agencies had to step in to ensure human security. The dependent variable will be the impacts that the non-governmental agencies had on the Haiti case.

Methods of Data Collection

This study will use a qualitative approach. More information will be obtained from the A lot of information will be obtained from secondary sources such as documents, journals, newspapers, and books. Interviews will also be conducted from NGO experts or those working with the NGO’s, to strengthen the findings. The method of data collection, which will be used in this research, is the primary data collection method since the participants in the study will be contacted directly through the questionnaire interview. The interview questionnaire will contain questions where the participant will have to give in answers where the answers will be the data for the study. This primary data collection method is considered the best since it will be accurate and relevant since the researcher will be in direct contact with the participant’s opinion so as to be able to determine and come up with very good conclusions. The large amount of data will be organized and categorized as necessary to aid in the data analysis.

Data Collection Tools

The data collection tools, which will be used in the study, will be the online Questionnaire (Appendix A).

4.0 Findings

This chapter will display all the results, which will be got from the research where they will be represented in the form of graphs, tables, illustrations, and figures. The main Aim and purpose of this chapter is to be able to report type and nature of all the statistical procedures which would be applied to the collected data.

Descriptive Statistics

All the data from the study will be presented in the form of a table or several tables for easy statistical calculations.

Inferential Statistics

The inferential statistics will show the test which would be used in the study. In this dissertation, the statistical outcome will be clearly stated where we will use the Chi-Square value and the p-value where the raw calculations will be indicated in the Appendix C.

5.0 Analysis of the Findings

The findings will be restated in this chapter so as to be able to determine as to whether the experimental hypothesis was supported or not. The data, which was presented in Chapter 4.0, would be discussed in depth in this chapter.

Statistical analysis would be carried out on the data where the data will be tested on the level of significance. The Software to be used for analyzing the data will be the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) statistical software. The data will then be conducted a t-test so as to be able to get a significance difference.

6.0 Conclusion

This chapter will bring out the conclusions, which have been brought forth from the study. The conclusions will be based on the findings of the study. The results of the hypothesis testing will also be discussed.

6.1 implications and Limitations

The overall challenges, which were encountered in the research, will be mentioned in this section

6.2 Recommendations for Future Study

All the ideas which will be considered to be eligible for future studies will be mentioned in this section. Furthermore, recommendations will also be highlighted in this section. The recommendations will be suggestions, which need to be put in place so as to improve the penetration of the NGOs in the human security. It is important to understand the problems faced by the NGO’s to understand the relationship between human security and human development.

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