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Information Assurance

Technology has made sharing of information between people easier and faster. Because of technological innovation more information is shared today than ever before. However, this has not been without setbacks as malicious people try to gain access to information in an unlawful manner. Hacking, computer viruses, and worms spread all over the network to give malicious people unauthorized access to information they are not supposed to access. As such, disciplines such as Information Security and Information Assurance have evolved to counteract the effects of unlawful access to information. In Information Assurance, different tools and systems are created and reinforced to prevent people from accessing information they are not supposed to access. This paper is a research project on the topic of information assurance and explores issues that are related to this research on topic.

One of the advantages of an information system is its ability to ensure safety and credibility of information that is communicated through it or resides in it. Information specialists make increased efforts to ensure that information, especially the one in digital format, remains credible and safe from unauthorized access or modification of whatever form. As such, a number of specializations have emerged that seek to control the accessibility of information in any information system. Among them is specialization in information security that derives its principles mainly from the field of computer science.

However, people's increasing knowledge about computer science creates the need to take information security a notch higher to not only take account of physical formulation of an information system but also of the digital part of information. This need resulted into a field known as information assurance, which is generally a superset of information security. This field includes such branches as systems engineering, accounting, criminology, forensic science,  security engineering, management science, and fraud examination that are collectively known as information assurance.

Objectives of information assurance are numerous and different. One is the need to provide strategic direction on how to ensure cyber security and prevent e-crime. Information assurance specialists also engage in different awareness programs that aim at teaching individuals and organizations about best practices of information assurance. This is done through improvement of technical capability and operational designs that organizations and individuals use while storing information. Similarly, information assurance enhances security of information. This helps government officials to avoid the risks of hacking and viral attacks from malicious groups, whose intention is to access information for fraudulent purposes.

Overall, information assurance is a field of science that aims at providing effective risk management tools to protect safety of information residing in an information system during all stages of use, processing, storage, and transmission. Information assurance field also provides systems and processes used for all above purposes. This paper is a project on information assurance. It researches available literature on the topic of information assurance.

Project 1

1. Name: Shae Lempka

2. Discipline:   Information Assurance

3. Research question:

Being a risk management field, what are the advantages and prospects of information assurance in information industry?

4.  Keywords and synonyms:

Advantages: benefits, gains, pros, leads, help.

Prospect: view, vista, panorama, viewpoint, outlook.

Information: data, facts, instruction, intelligence, knowledge, message, news, notice, report, tidings.

Assurance: pledge, declaration, assertion, guarantee, reassurance.

Risk: threat, danger, hazard, menace.

Management: administration, supervision, managing.

Industry: production, commerce, trade.

5. Pro-Quest Electronic database, ACM Digital Library:

Search statements:

(Advantages OR benefits OR gains OR pros OR leads) AND prospect (view OR vista OR panorama OR viewpoint OR outlook) AND Information (data OR facts OR instruction OR intelligence OR knowledge) AND assurance (assertion OR guarantee) AND risk AND management;

“Advantages AND prospects” AND information assurance AND risk management AND information industry;

“Information assurance” AND risk management AND information industry (production OR trade OR commerce);

7. Citation in correct APA format:

Kim, D. J., Sivasailam, N. & Rao, H. R. (2004). Information assurance in B2C websites for information goods/services. Journal of Electronic Markets,14 (4), 344-359. doi: 10.1080/10196780412331311784.

8. Database name:

ACM Digital Library

9. Subject terms:

Information assurance;

Information goods;


The information in the first project will form the basis of project two with annotation of more sources that will be used in the final essay. Information assurance continues to elicit interest of information industry including websites. Therefore, there is a need to address the principles behind this field. Information assurance is a highly researched topic, and there are numerous sources of scholarly information on the same that will be used in this project.

Project 2

Name: Shae Lempka

Research question: What is the importance of information assurance in enhancing security of information and information systems?

Naumann, D. J., Davis, G. B. & McKeen, J. D. (2001) Determining information requirements: A contingency method for selection of a requirements assurance strategy. Journal of Systems and Software, 1(3), 273–281. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0164121279900293/

This article analyses intricacies involved in ensuring that information that is provided is secured from unauthorized access and manipulation. It identifies two major areas on which information assurance specialists must concentrate while utilizing the information that is stored and transmitted through an information system. These two areas are creating information requirements that need to be met and adherence to these information assurance requirements. There is also a need to have a well defined selection strategy that enhances processes of information assurance in an information system. The paper also proposes a number of techniques, procedures, and methodologies that can be used in these processes. Naumann, Davis, and McKeen are both renowned scholars who have published scholarly works in the areas of information assurance and information security. Their works have been published either jointly or independently in a number of reputable journals. This article is thus resourceful and reliable due to its currency, relevance, and well-known authors. The article describes issues such as use, processing, storage, and transmission of information as well as discusses the systems and processes that are related to information security in detail.

This article was found in Pro-Quest and SIRS Issues Researcher.

Qian, Y. (2008). Information assurance: Dependability and security in networked systems. Burlington: Morgan Kaufmann.

Hamill, J. D.,  Deckro, R. F. &  Kloeber, J. M. (2005). Evaluating information assurance strategies. Decision Support Systems, 39 (3), 463–484. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dss.2003.11.004.

This article was found in ACM Digital Library.

Chung, L. (1998). Dealing with security requirements during the development of information systems. Advanced Information Systems Engineering, 685(7), 234-251, doi: 10.1007/3-540-56777-1_13.

This article was found in SpringerLink.

Gupta, M., Rao, R. & Upadhyaya, S. (2004). Electronic banking and information assurance issues: Surveys and synthesis. Journal of Organizational and End User Computing, 16 (3), 21-45. doi: 10.4018/joeuc.2004070101.

This article claims that information assurance is a key practice that involves processing and transmission of information, including e-banking. As such, it is important to be familiar with issues and practices in all areas involving information in digital format to enhance security of that information. This is done through effective and efficient design, development, and assessment of the adequacy of electronic infrastructures that are involved. The article enables the reader to have firsthand experience in the area of information assurance in electronic banking. This in turn enables him/her to appreciate technologies and methodologies that are helpful in making better judgments about information assurance in regard to security of information. The article is written by renowned authors, whose experience in information assurance spans for over two decades. The authors present strong, factual, and evidence-based statement that are based on exhaustive research and verified through peer reviews. The article is also published in a scholarly peer reviewed journal to enhance reliability and authenticity of the information therein. The article refers to other scholarly works that discuss the topic of information assurance. Findings in this article are important in answering my research question stated in this project. This is due to their contributions to the knowledge on information assurance and its role in ensuring security of information in information systems. I am, therefore, going to use these findings to demonstrate the points in my article.

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