We condemn the war and support Ukraine in its struggle for democratic values.
We also encourage you to join the #StandWithUkraine movement by making a donation at this link
Chinese Civilization

China is one the most popular countries in the world. Their expertise in several things and the high level of technology in China are some of the things that make this country outstanding. However, most people are not aware of the long journey that China has come to be where it is. The country has undergone various transformations in various sectors, particularly governorship. The strong leadership that China had in its early days created a significant foundation to this nation. This essay examines China’s history regarding issues like The Qin Law, the Iron, and salt Debate. It also discusses the Chinese songs and poems, and some of the leaders in the ancient days.


Songs and Poems

Most of the songs and poems in the Chinese history were written in the Zhou period.  This period was between (1049-771BC).  These songs were considered to be a great source of encouragement and beliefs of the Chinese people that lived at that time. Furthermore, they believed that all the answers to the daily challenges lay in these songs and poems. They would find answers to matters of marriage and work. These songs were composed several centuries ago and are still remembered today in several ways by the Chinese. For instance, most of the songs sang in Chinese courts are a reminder of those old times. These particular songs were composed due to the decay that existed among the royal families. Additionally, most of the songs sang during rites among the Chinese were composed during this time. They have a specific format in which they follow. For instance, most of them are generally short and involve a lot of imageries. These traits make them unique.

The Qin Law 221 BC

China, which composed of several states, then had lived in a battle for a long time. However, Qin dynasty was able to unite them. He achieved this through enforcing principles, specific procedures and punishments in these states. One of the procedures used by Qin was to undermine the ruling and patriarchal families. As a result, this procedure created better relations between the royal families and other citizens. Another strategy used by Qin was to standardize currency and any measures throughout the nation. Before that, states were using different currency and measures in various areas, particularly in business. However, Qin made a remarkable step by ensuring that these aspects were uniform throughout the country. Consequently, this reduced the differences that existed among people. Thirdly, Qin played a fundamental role in ensuring that the non-Legal schools were completely eliminated. These schools were believed to be of specifically for the elites in the society. This situation had earlier on resulted to a sharp difference between the royal families and the rest. Another law that was enacted by Qin is that emperors became the new name for the rulers.  All these changes occurred in 221 BC.

The Dispute on Iron and Salt

Salt, Iron, and alcohol were greatly treasured as they were the major sources of riches mainly to the private investors in China about 81 BC.  Emperor Wu put in place government controls in this sector. However, some people who were referred to as the learned men opposed this idea. They argued that encouraging people to venture into the salt and iron business would mean that the necessities would be abandoned. People would live agriculture that seemed to be the backbone of China as it was the source of food. They suggested that the government monopolies on the issue be abolished so as to daunt people from embracing secondary livelihoods. However, a minister in the ruling regime disputed this suggestion. He argued that salt, alcohol and iron trade had made noteworthy improvements such as growth in the Chinese economy. It provided a livelihood for the soldiers and had increased the Chinese wealth significantly. The learned men continued criticizing the minister on how extravagant he was and did not care about the poor. He only wanted to create personal wealth with the salt and iron business. The debate went on until one of the ministers who was a strong pillar of the ruling regime got executed. Consequently, the government became weak and the opposition that mainly consisted the learned men took over and stopped the iron and salt rules. They were later overthrown, and the monopolies resumed. However, all this ended when a final decision was made to leave the iron and salt businesses to the private investors.

Wang Fu on Friendship

Wang Fu played a key role in teaching on friendship and unity in the Han dynasty.  He taught that human beings were the most treasured things in Heaven and Earth hence people should love each other. He came up with several ideas that were people-oriented. He encouraged people to embraced agriculture as it was the basic necessity that they needed. He introduced most of the critical social ideas that exist up to date. He made considerable efforts in uniting the people.

Emperor Taizong

He was a second ruler in Tang Dynasty. His period of the ruling was considered as the most ideal in the history of China. He set the standards of how the empire would be ruled. Other emperors who succeeded him were always measured to his standards. He ensured that the dynasty improved both economically and in security issues. He used scientific reasoning in all situations and was also a great scholar.  He had brilliant strategies of dealing with issues, and this made him succeed. For instance, he established his defense team that assisted him to unite the empire. He also merged most of the states that were so many at that time. This decision made it easier to rule the empire. He ruled between 626 to 649. As a matter of fact, his leadership was regarded as the most perfect.

Legal Code

This code was formed in 624, was used in olden China and spread to other parts of Asia. Firstly, the Code was clear that any offense must go hand in hand with penalty. The Code also made it clear that witnesses will be judged depending on five types of behavior that included how he or she was breathing and expression during the hearing. These were to help in acquiring as many facts as possible in a case. These aspects were used by the magistrate, and when he failed to get enough facts from it, he would pass it to higher judgment. The code stated that the higher judgment would mainly use torture to acquire more information. The accused would receive 200 blows till he gave the whole information. If he managed to endure the pain, the same would be done to the accuser till he admitted that he had made up the whole case. He would then receive the punishment that the accused would have received.


In conclusion, it is true that China has undergone great transformations since time immemorial. The country has undergone uncountable struggles, particularly in economic and leadership issues. However, the ancient leaders were strong enough to make it stand. Some of the leaders like Emperor Taizong made remarkable achievements that will be remembered by the next generations. He created a strong foundation in every sector for the Chinese people. Some of the songs and poems composed during the ancient times are still used today. The songs and poems are a sign of brilliant minds that existed. The history of the Chinese people has critically contributed to the current advancements witnessed in China.

Order now

Related essays