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Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism is a behavior characterized by the lack of social behaviors or communication as well as strange and recurrent behaviors. According to the description of the condition given by Leo Kranner in 1943, a number of trials have been made to explain this state. The prime paradigms that have been made are cognitive and psychodynamic ones (McAfee, 2000). This article tries to explain and assess the ides of these approaches towards understanding of the causes, diagnosis, and treatment measures.

According to psychoanalysts, autism is a disorder that is characterized by lack of self-development and alteration of sense of others. It is explained in terms of psychoanalytical aspects, such as dysfunctional behaviors of a person and his / her identification (Campbell et. al, 1996). The conceptual explanation for autism involves the object relations theory, which explains that a certain stage is prolonged in the normal development and object relations are more focused on during the process of their perception ( Meltzer, D. 1975). It is an explanation that focuses less on cognitive symptoms and puts more emphasis on social deficits. There is a distinction between autism and other kinds of psychological disorders. Just as there is a distinction from the outside world, only two major psychoanalytic approaches are distinguished for explaining autistic conditions. The first approach is a regression to the other stage of development; while the second one explains that autism is a way of defense against stressful situations (Harlow & McKinney, 1971).

A number of arguments have been suggested in favor of psychoanalytic views of autism. For instance, it is believed that in the past autistic children assisted in the study of pathology, and there are a number of research that have been conducted to indicate that autistic children show a qualitatively different experience when exposed to psychoanalytic terms with complications relating to the ego development that contribute to social misconduct witnessed in their actions. In the past, psychoanalysts believed that autism is psychogenic, and there are still similar approaches in application today.

There is an argument that the method of social participation, which results into identification, is critical in the development of autism (Mudford et al, 2000). The development of autism has been based on two major principles: the destruction of the ego and the adhesive identification or the biological relations control ( Mayes, L. C., & Cohen, D. J. 1994). The process of the destruction of the ego refers to the belief that autistic patient’s ego is divided into a range of senses to ensure they do not perceive the world properly, and all perceptions are combined (Gray, 1994). Bio-dimensionality is a condition where the autistic child relates to libidinal objects without the ability to understand more than the surface objects ( Mayes, L. C., & Cohen, D. J. 1994). It is related to bio-dimensionality where self that results into difficulty in articulating ideas can identify the surface objects only. Autism has also been explained in terms of feeling of fear by an infant by the construction of an illusion that the inside worlds merge with the outside world ( Meltzer, D. 1975). Autism has also been described as a condition where drives are diffused with the most common being death drive.

In spite of controversies, there is an extensive use of psychoanalytic theories in treatment of autism (Mayes, L. C., & Cohen, D. J. 1994). The main focus of psychodynamic approach is the focus on the worker-child relationship instead of focusing on the attempt to minimize changes in behaviors. It also stresses on interaction between the practitioner and the child (Mahler, 1965). The therapy is focused on ensuing strong parental attention with more emphasis being put on the physical affection. The refrigerator mother hypothesis has been more significant in affecting intervention measures for the last decades (Moore & Shiek, 1971). It has also been argued whether the thorough autism psychoanalytic approach towards the improvement of autism prognosis is important, but less attention is paid to this observation. This paper is an illustration of the major theories concerning autism and methods that can be applied to cure the condition psychoanalytically.

Purpose Statement

The prime objective of this article is to illustrate that the psychoanalytical approach can be used to treat autism with great chances of success ( Pennington, B. F at al 1997). It is aimed at addressing the problem of autism that has been estimated to affect at least one person in every 150 individuals around the world (Mudford et al, 2000). The major aim of this treatment is to address developmental delays that take place as a person grows from childhood to adulthood. This paper explains the importance of a psychoanalyst in assisting children with autism through decoding of their thinking, feelings, and actions. The decoding also assists in ensuring what the child is saying makes sense to the mother and ensures the mother has confidence that she can understand her child (Pennington, B. F at al 1997). This paper explains the approach when behavior, mood, and emotions of the child are used in order to introduce some signs to the child and then to ensure that he / she understands them accordingly. This stage is an indication that the therapist has entered the child’s world.

It is an illustration that the psychologists need to be part and parcel of the package because it is not always easy to get what the children are trying to communicate. It shows that it is possible to reverse autism with early intervention such as psychoanalysis (Langdell, 1973). This is because the brain can be controlled with a reasonable amount of therapy. This paper provides literature reviews of the approaches that should be used by pediatricians to screen children for autism (Meltzer, D. 1975). It emphasizes the identifications of early signs of autistic disorders such as not turning when the mother asks the child to look at a place, not pointing to their mother to show an interesting place (Pennington, B. F et al 1997). It may also include not smiling immediately or inability to make eye contact with other people.

This article explains that autism is a condition that can be treated, and there are cases where children exposed to this therapy have been successfully cured, and they had been better behaved compared with when they started the therapy. It recommends the need for parents to relate to their children irrespective of their state.

As a result of lack of specific treatment for autism, it is necessary to increase information regarding autisms spectrum disorders and increase the level of research concerning its causes, prevention and treatment (Helm, D. 1976). The main purpose of all the approaches used is to allow children lead healthy as well as normal lives (Gajewski, Hirn, & Mayo, 1998). Other techniques that have been used by parents to treat autism include the change of diet, but it is worth noting that diversity of the population does not allow one approach to work for all parents with autistic children. It is not clear concerning what works and what does not work. However, there is a need to carry out more researches on intervention measures that can work for children with autism (Cohen, 1994).

Significance of the Study

The study of psychoanalytical diagnosis of autism is very significant knowledge for both parents and anybody who has people under his / her care. For instance, mothers with young children need to ensure that their children are normal in their behaviors. At school, teachers also need to be aware of the methods they can assist autistic children to learn in normal learning environments ( Mayes and Cohen 1994). The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the use of psychoanalytical techniques in treatment of autism by acquisition of the right amounts of skills to do the task. It also teaches parents on the behaviors they need to observe their children if they suspect that their children are affected with autism. By using the recommended approach towards treatment of autism, parents are likely to prevent any possibility of making mistake of using the wrong approach in accomplishing the purpose of treating their children. By doing the primary research, this paper comes up with a recommended approach for getting insight approach for managing autism complications by ensuring that parents and family members are educated with regards to what needs to be done in cases when children have been diagnosed autism.

It is also a useful guide for teachers when it comes to assisting handicapped children as well as assisting adults to cope with their lives in case they are still autistic in adulthood. It ensures they manage their lives well and become able to do their job and become independent as other people of their age ( Mayes and Cohen, 1994). This study also emphasizes that there is a need to take care of oneself by handling emotions, fears, as well as complications that ensure a child suffering from autism is helped. By using the recommendations suggested in this article, I believe it will be possible to prevent the chances of people experiencing depression or stress-related complications.

This paper also gives insight into some of the beliefs that have initially been associated with autism, such as refrigerator mother condition and Asperger condition, as well as their limitations.

Limitations of the Study

There are a number of limitations associated with this study. Despite its significance in teaching psychoanalytical ways of treating autism, it does not consider other scientific methods that have been devised to treat the condition. The research also focused on the study of psychology of an autistic person rather than considering other popular methods as well. This focus results into confusion since there are other practical hypotheses that are less considered than the beliefs of most people (Mudford et al, 2000). The study totally grounded the use of scientific methods such as the application of the use of genes as a method of treating autism. The study does not also consider the effect of autism on subsequent children born in a family. Furthermore, the methodology did not provide the effect of geographical location on the chances of an individual being born with autism. The literature review also focused more on the symptoms and characteristics of autism and did not indicate whether there is any best method that can be applied to treat the condition (Russell, 1998).

Brief Theory

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is an obstacle in the brain development associated with lack of social skills, report complications, and mechanical behaviors. The most serious type of autism is thought to be the autistic disorder despite the seriousness of other conditions such as Asperger syndrome or minority disintegration. Despite the variations of ASD in person and seriousness, its distribution in the social groups and cultural environments is well distributed and can affect any person in a society (Ribas, 1998). The research suggests that in every 88 people, 1 is likely to be affected with ASD and the possibility of finding a male human suffering from the requirement is higher compared with females. Bruno Bettelheim in 1967 suggested that Autism had no organic basis and argued that it all resulted from the parent withholding appropriate affection from their children and failing to establish connection with these kids. Bruno argued that sometimes parent seems not to like existence of their children, he cruelly blamed the weak fathers or even completely absent.

One of the classes where autism is classified is the delayed language development. In this case, the patient displays delayed speech (Howlin, 1997). The child develops delayed reports of a particular language instead of implementing it. It is generally evident in receptive and moving branches. Receptive approach is the ability to understand what is being communicated to us. Expressive language is the environment where we use words to describe what we need to talk to a person (Bettelheim, 1967). They are both serious when we want to communicate with another person and to understand what is being communicated to us.

Some of the treatment programs that have been applied for this type of autism include consideration, awareness and making recommendations by a professional pathologist (Parada, 1996). Treatment also involves specific treatment approaches that meet the needs of the patient or scheduled therapy sessions (Ribas, 1998).

The other form of autism is the learning disorders that include disorders that make a person unable to learn in a usual manner because of the unknown or known factor (Kanner, 1943). The factor that is more disadvantageous is the unknown factor as it affects the capacity of the brain to receive certain types of information.

This type of autism makes the patient have problems with learning compared with a person who is not affected with autism (Gajewski et al, 1998). Autistic individuals experience many problems when it comes to application of certain learning skills if left to do certain things on their own or if allowed to learn in conventional ways.

The major approach to treatment of this complication is evaluation, interpretation, and application of a certain speech pathologist language. It also involves the provision of customized treatment according to the needs of the person.

The other disorder brought by autism is auditory processing disorders (Ribas, 1998). These are skills that are hereditary and are useful in assisting listening and communication activities. Autism results into a complication of acquisition and mastery of spoken or written language skills (Cohen, 1994). The acquisition of these skills is essential in a learning process. It has also been noted that children as well as adults suffering from auditory processing disorder (ASD) have the difficulty of applying auditory information during communication and learning process (Ribas, 1998). ASP refers to a range of difficulties that occur in the process of listening. It is manifested by a deficit in understanding auditory information that may be made mere serious by unfriendly noisy environment and is characterized by a low capacity to listen to a speech or understanding of a language and to develop learning (Ribas, 1998). It is a disorder that is not easily cured, and some of the successful approaches that have been used to treat this condition are: direct therapeutic assistance that is administered by a language pathologist assigned to a child, modification of environmental conditions by changing the conditions at home and school to improve the learning process of a child, and the use of competency techniques that are particularly applied by the child to assist in the listening or learning process.

Autism is a complication in growth manifested by difficulties in socializing and communicating of a person with other people (Ribas, 1998). It is characterized by the development of the symptoms at an early age such as three years and results into delays in development of certain skills that are supposed to develop from childhood to adulthood. There are different symptoms displayed by different people (Bjorne and Balkenius, 2005). According to health care providers, it is a condition where disorders of similar characteristics are displayed (Ribas D. 1998). For instance, a person may have mild symptoms; whereas another may experience extreme symptoms. However, they are both considered to have autism spectrum disorder. As a result, there are three key categories of autism disorders: autistic disorder, ASD, and Pervasive Development Disorder (PDD) (Robson, 1972).

In order to assist autistic children, a variety of approaches have been used to communicate with them. These ranges of communication are collectively referred to as Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). They act as supplements or replacements for spoken language or writing for patients who have difficulties in understanding spoken language. It includes the use of other forms of speech apart from oral communication that assist in expressing thoughts requirements, wants or ideas. For instance, ACC is applied when we use facial expressions symbols, pictures or drawings (Dissanayake and Crossley, 1997). There are diverse ranges of ACC systems: the use of unaided communication is implemented with the use of no equipment and emphasizes on the use of body language whereas aided techniques imply the use of tools and other facilities, such as communication boards and speech generating facilities (Robson, 1972). Some of the majorly used symbols in ACC include gestures, pictures, drawings, letters or words that can be drawn separately or in combination (Gray, 2000). Targeting can also be achieved by the use of body parts, adapted mice, tracking of the eye, and switching the access scanning applied in direct selection (Robson,  1972).

Those who have severe problems with their speeches often use ACC to facilitate the current speech or act as a replacement for the speech that is not functional. People who need to express themselves often use individual augmentative devices, such as picture or symbol communication boards as well as electronic machines (Ribas, 1980). It has increased social awareness, performance of an institution, and self-satisfaction.

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