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Drug Addiction

 Long-term drugs use  can  cause  addiction  this is  obsessive drug wanting and abuse regardless of its known dangerous effects leading to social performance in the circumstance of family, school, work, and recreational activities. Continued drugs users trying to give up report bad temper, sleeplessness, decreased appetite, anxiety, and drug craving, all of this makes it hard to quit. These withdrawal signs begin with like 1 day following moderation, peak at 2–3 days, and subside within 1 or 2 weeks as a result of drug cessation various number of researches  have shown a relationship between persistent drugs use and increased toll in anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and schizophrenia. These studies have revealed age at first application to be a reason, in case of early use is an indicator of exposure to afterward problems. Katrina (2000) Nonetheless, at the time, it is not obvious that drugs abuse results to mental problems, exacerbates them, or is used in effort to self-medicate symptom by now in existence. Constant drugs use, particularly in a young individual, also may be an indicator of danger for mental illness, including addiction, stemming from hereditary or ecological vulnerabilities, like early exposure to stress or aggression. Presently   the strongest proof relates Drugs use to schizophrenia and other related disorders.Elevated doses of Drugs can create an acute psychotic reaction; also, use of the drug could activate the start or relapse of schizophrenia in susceptible individuals. drugs also has some effects on the heart it increases heart rate by 20 %–100% soon after smoking; this result could last   for 3 hours. In a single study, it was predicted that drugs abuser has a 4.8-fold increase in the danger of heart attack during the first hour of smoking the drug.This is due to the amplified heart rate and its effects of drugs on heart rhythm, leading to palpitations and arrhythmias. The danger may be superior in aging populations and those with cardiac vulnerabilities. Many studies have shown that drugs smoke contains carcinogens that are a   nuisance to the lungs. It is said that, drugs smoke has 50–70 percent more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than the ones in tobacco smoke. (Kevin 3899). Drugs users regularly inhale more intensely and hold their breath for a long time than tobacco smokers do, this further adds to the lungs’ contact to carcinogenic smoke. Drugs smokers demonstrate deregulated enlargement of epithelial cells in their lung tissue, this  could cause to cancer;8 though, a new case-controlled study established no optimistic relations between drugs use and  the lung, upper respiratory, or upper digestive tract cancers. So, the relation between drugs smoke and the cancers is still unsubstantiated at the time

.However, drugs users may have many of these respiratory harms as tobacco smokers, like every day cough and phlegm production, further frequent severe chest illness, and a delicate risk of lung infection. A study of 450 persons established that natives who smoke drugs commonly but do not smoke tobacco have further health problems and neglect further days of work unlike nonsmokers. Lots of the more sick days amid the drug users during the study were as a result of respiratory illnesses. Researches evidently show that drugs has the possibility to cause problems in every day life or make an individual existing problem shoddier. In a  study, serious drug abusers reported that the drug impaired a number of important events of life attainment including physical and mental health,(Davis 1999) cognitive abilities, social life, and career status      numerous studies correlate workers’ drugs taking  amid increased absence, tardiness, accidents, workers’ damages claims, and job earnings.


Options behavioral intervention, including cognitive behavioral remedy and motivational incentive i.e., giving  voucher for goods or services to patients who stay abstinent have exposed effectiveness in treating drugs reliance. Though no medications are at present available, new discovery about the mechanism of the cannabin structure offer guarantee for the growth of medications to relieve withdrawal, block the exhilarating effect of drugs, (Katrina 2000) and stop deterioration. The most recent treatment statistics show that in 2006 marijuana was the main common illegal drug of abuse and was accountable for about 16 percent (289,988) of all admission to treatment amenities in the United States. Drugs admission were mainly male (73.8 percent), White (51.5 percent), and young (36.1 percent were in the 15–19 age range). Those in treatment for prime Drugs abuse had started use at an early age: 56.2 percent had abused it at the  age of  14 and 92.5 percent had used  it by age 18 national survey on drug use and health ,in the year 2007 ,reported that 14.4 million Americans of 12 years and above used Drugs each at least once in a month before being surveyed ,this is similar to the 2006 statistics .almost 6,000 individuals in a day in the year 2007 used Drugs as first timers -2.1 million Americans .out of these 62.2 %were less  than  18 years.

The Monitoring Future survey shows that Drugs use amongst 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-graders— has shown a dependable decline since 1990s it appears to have dropped with 10.9 percent of 8th-graders, 23.9 percent of 10th-graders, and 32.4 percent of 12th-graders covering past-year use. Heightening the alarm over the stabilization in application is the result that, as compared to last year, the amount of 8th-graders who alleged smoked drugs as dangerous and the amount that condemn of the drug’s employ have decrease


In conclusion there are many people who have come with an idea to legalize drugs, Drugs if used in minimum amounts does not have greater impacts on an individual just as alcohol but the main difference between alcohol and Drugs is that drugs is addictive and once an individual takes one gets a feeling of wanting more drugs on the other hand has very many negative impacts on the health of an individual using it,

Much as they have given many reasons as to why drugs should be legalized they still can’t prove most of there facts scientifically they just come up with there own theories to protect there owns interests.(William 2001) ,any individual with adequate knowledge on the effects of drugs would not join the individuals working for its legalization .the government and local authorities should take lead in educating its people on the effects of drugs governments and health bodies should hold campaigns to educate people on the use ,and  effects of drugs they  also try to rehabilitate the people who have been addicted to drugs build rehabilitation centers for these addicts.

US interdiction efforts

The U.S. Customs Service was formed in the year 1789 and is among the oldest agencies of the federal government. Originally the Custom had the mission of collecting profits. However, later on its target also included of making sure that each of the item and individual who enters or leaves the United States does so in a way that they fulfil the rules and policies of the U.S,(Michael,34).Furthermore, another very important aim of the Customs is prevent the smuggle of drugs inside the United States which is done through the creation of an efficient drug interdiction, intelligence, and investigation capacity which has the ability of disrupting and dismantling smuggling organizations.

The major organizational features of the Custom’s drug interdiction program happen to be the Offices of Field Operations and Investigations. There are around 11,000 inspectors, special agents, and other staff in these offices and they are there for conducting investigations at the ports and also examinations at and between the ports. Along with this they have to their access canines and different kinds of instruments which include X-ray mechanisms, boats and airplanes and they make use of all these for carrying out their responsibilities. Customs had the Operations Hard Line as an effort for addressing border conflict and for the smuggling of drugs. Hard Line had been initially executed on the Southwest border. It places a stress on the intensified examinations, enhanced services, and employing technology. Now this operation reached out to the southern tier of the United States as well, Jeff, 23.

Customs has invested in various technologies, for instance X-ray units for trucks and containerized cargo, and this has been done for the purpose of detecting smuggled drugs.

There has been the development of two success measures by the Customs. The first include the traditional measures which can trace the yield while the other are the non-traditional ones for tracing the effect that is brought about through Customs’ drug interdiction attempts. The traditional measures consist of the number and amount of drugs that have been seized plus also the number of arrests, condemnations, and convictions that have taken place. Other than this Customs brought about the development of eight non-traditional measures. However, till now it had executed just one, which was measuring the degree to which there was a reduction in the number of port runners (who are the drug smugglers attempting to drive a vehicle full of drugs through a port).


Drug trafficking organizations which exist in the affected countries pose an astonishing threat to the communities within the country and the entire humanity at large. In focus to the said nations the drug trafficking or sneaking without government approval is used by the criminals and high ranked profile individuals that use the dollars and money accumulated during the vice for their own benefits of criminal activities and injustices, this has been evident during the past decades by the researchers .The reports have clearly indicated the use of power by the Government heavyweight to calm the police men, furthermore the use of impunity has adversely affected the ways of curbing the drug scandals in the entire city of the said nations.

The organizations have a lot of power which goes beyond the country and into the markets in the United States as well, In addition the fight against substance and drug trafficking is yet successful in the entire globe, the practice of this deviant behavior is still seen in most countries a round the glob among young people commonly known as the youths and in both adults in exchange of money and any other personal motives that are associated with the drugs at large.

Drug trafficking is often associated with vices such as crime, prostitution, suicide and many others, it degrades human life and therefore the fight against it should not be left solely to the government and private parastatals rather every individual should join in this fight, in order for us to have a healthy and functioning society now and in the generations to come. In this regards the Governments of any given Nation should come up different ways of cubing the vice, such as mobilizing the youths by empowering them through establishing projects that aim at educating their generations, for instance educating them a bout the dangers of substance and drug abuse, the youths should also take initiative themselves by following the teachings of established organizations such as NACCADA, and put in practice what they have been taught.

Drug peddling or trafficking is widespread in today’s society. According to study done by the National organization for the Campaign against drug trafficking Agency such as (NACADAA) shows that exploitation of harmful drugs and substances spreads with time and is rampant mostly in immature citizens between the ranges of 14 to35years.Medical personnel also urge that drug and substance reliance in the general public has enlarged. The use of ordinary drugs and substance are against the law due to their negative effects and can lead to outright harassment while in some nations, Peddlers and promoters. Nevertheless drug trafficking in the black bazaar making it difficult for the nations of the glob to prevent and control the vice. For the government of the day should also implement and impose defined regulations and any body that breaks them should be arraign in the court of law and face the charges., either through international criminal court or be locally examine by the defined court of law. Finally each and everyone should take personal initiative of avoiding the vice bearing in mind the side effects it.

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