We condemn the war and support Ukraine in its struggle for democratic values.
We also encourage you to join the #StandWithUkraine movement by making a donation at this link
Robert Jones

The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder abbreviated as DSM-IV-TR is the standard used by the United States of America professionals in classifying mental disorders.  Professionals actually use a multiaxial system which is an assessment on several axes that define various domains of information that helps the clinicians to predict the outcome of a planned treatment. DSM-IV-TR consists of selecting those disorders from the classification that best reflect the symptoms and the signs that are afflicting the person being investigated or evaluated (Association, 2000).

Axis I stipulate and reports all various disorders and situation in the categorization. Robert continued with clinic approximately nine months making nice improvement. Robert had a withdrawal syndrome for alcohol as it is evident in the story; at one time when her wife was hospitalized for a mild heart attack he couldn’t hold it together, he drunk and then asked for help.

Axis II talks about mental retardation and personal disparity; generally, it is used for noting maladaptive personality features. Robert could not think in any way that could help him to stop drinking. His wife was very sad because of his behavior as she tried to ask request him to stop drinking and he could not listen. His wife narrates how he had a large credit bill which he could not explain to her. Robert was not social and his recreational activities decreased because of drinking. He forgot about his family as we have seen he came home late.

Axis III is used for describing present broad-spectrum medical conditions that are likely relevant to the recognition or management of the person's mental disorder. Robert became a social aid with alcohol in that he could drink large amount of alcohol than intended; the alcohol concentration in this body was higher than the total blood supply in the body. His wife says he could even go home late at around 3.00 am.   

Axis IV covers environmental and psychological problems that may influence the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of medical disorder. Robert went on drinking despite of having prior knowledge of physical and psychological impact of taking alcohol. He complained the whole time he was not drunk. He could not recognize the factors that would spur him to drink again. This is also evident when we see him going home very late and not paying the bill.

Axis V deals with global evaluation of the body functioning. Robert went on drinking despite of having knowledge of physical and psychological impact of taking alcohol. His body was not functioning properly. As he could not walk straight and touch the tip of his nose with index finger of each of his hand. His wife usually drove him when he was drunk.

Robert was diagnosed with axes I which is reserved for developmental, learning, and clinical disorders. Robert clearly shows that he has panic disorder when he was told by the cops that he was weaving all over the road, and they wanted to know whether he was okay. He overconfidently said that he was okay. Moreover, he tried to prove to them that he had no problems. From the report, we have seen that Robert had a generalized anxiety disorder symptom that is evident when he was told by cops that he would go to jail. He showed the fear. He was worried and tensed and lamented that this would kill his family, his job, and him as well (Frances & Ross, 2001).

Anxiety disorder is also evidenced when he says that it was difficult to get to sleep. Nevertheless, anxiety disorder is evident in the report where we see his blood alcohol concentration going up to 20. This is very unhealthy for humans and may even cause death. It is also evident that Robert had an anxiety disorder, because he was advised on various methods and techniques that he would use to stop the use of alcohol.

Robert was also diagnosed with an axe II; this is used for mental retardation and personality disorders which may include histrionic personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, paranoid personality disorder, dependent personality disorder, schizotypal, antisocial, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. From the report, Robert has none of these personality disorders except for the fact that he may not perceive that there is something wrong with his behavior and cannot be motivated to change. This is evidenced when he said, “I miss my beer”. He was not been allowed to have any. It was not easy especially during summer with cooking out and base ball.

It is evident that Robert had a schizoid personality disorder which is a disorder that shows the lack of desire for intimacy which belongs to no social group. This is seen in his comments: “I have been drinking and had never told you this for almost 30 years”. We also see him showing us a full range of emotions when he says, “I tell you, I miss my beer”.

Robert was also diagnosed with an axe III. This is used for condition or medical disorders. The examples include hyperthyroidism and mitral valve prolapsed. Hyperthyroidism is a condition caused by the excessive amount of thyroid hormone in the body tissues. The symptoms of this disorder are usually the same although there are different causes of hyperthyroidism. From the report, we have not seen any symptoms and signs that may refer Robert to this kind of disorder. Examples of this disorder may include: weight lose, a feeling of hotness all around, a lack of food appetite, shortness of breath, chest pain, muscle weaknesses, trembling of the hands or irregular heart beat known as palpitation.

Some of the symptoms of disorder are palpitation, fatigue, anxiety, chest pain, and migraine headaches. Basing my argument on the report, Robert has no disorder in axis III.

Robert was also diagnosed with an axes IV disorder; this indicates factors contributing to or affecting the recent treatment outcomes and psychiatric disorders. These include house problems, social issues, problems with work, financial difficulties, legal problems, the lack of adequate support system, and other psychological and environmental problems.  From the report, we see Robert being very worried when he was told that he may go to jail (Townsend, 2012).

Axe V dysfunction refers to as the overall evaluation taken by clinicians in judging a patient’s ability to conduct his/her daily duties. Robert is not in a position to drive, because he is so drunk. This is where we see his wife coming in and driving him home. 

The humanistic theory main perspective is on the self or the ‘YOU’. This view, according to the theory, states that one has the freedom to choose his/her behavior. Robert had been drinking for over 30 years but could not realize it. He only realizes it after discussing the matter in the clinic. Robert could drink and drive but did not at any time think of killing someone or causing an accident or even had himself killed.

According to Carl Roger, the behavior of a person operates from an extra ordinary reference. In such case, people try to build a sense of self-concept which is simply the belief people have about themselves. Robert feels that drinking has become a part of him, and it is not possible to stop. Robert’s problems started when he got fully addicted to beer. He could undergo unconditional love from his wife. His wife was always worried and wished he got rid of drinking habits.

Robert could go to work and work normally irrespective of drinking habits. In this theory of humanistic, Roger feels that people who are healthy psychologically enjoy their life to the fullest. People thought that Robert was sick, but he could not realize it and went on with his drinking behavior (Schneider, 2001).

Order now

Related essays