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Systems and Models of Government

Basically, there are three systems of government employed in different states in the world. They include the federal or national, the state and local governments. According to Aroson and Hillary (25), the federal system works under a defined set of constitution laws to unify various states under it. A good example of states under the federal system is the United States of America. This write up will give various insights concerning these three systems of government.

With the federal government like the United States of America being the national government, it differs in a number of ways with the State and the local governments which operate at lower levels. The federal government, for example, has an overlapping authority over both the state and local governments. It is, thus, mandated to provide the context under which both the state and the local governments function. This means that it is the federal government that has the authority to make laws that are supreme to the two systems of government. Both the state and the local governments must adhere to the various federal laws like that of the grants. Moreover, the federal government has the authority to intervene in the functioning of the state and the local government. It has thus been the state and the local government’s last resort in times of need. A good example is what happened in the 1860s and 1970s when the federal government of the United States stepped up to assist in solving the then environmental problem.

On the other hand, the state and local governments are directly involved in providing services for the citizens at the local level. A good example is the state of Alaska which makes policies that guide the provision of such services as welfare, healthcare, education and crime prevention. They, thus, come up with new programs that are meant to benefit the public directly. Compared to the federal government, the individual state and local governments also operate under limited resources. Aroson and Hillary (25) note that these two lower systems of government are very instrumental to the functioning of the federal government. However, the relationship between these lower level governments and the national government has not been that smooth as they have a number of accessions come together in opposing the federal laws like that of greenhouse gases in 2010.

According to McCormick (2004), the two famous contrasting models that affect the way state runs are the communism and capitalist models. These two models differ in political and economic ideologies. Communism is based on sharing while capitalism is based on private ownership. Communism is, therefore, concerned with sharing of resources among its members while capitalism, on the other hand, promotes class stratification, materialism and individualism in the society. Both models have an effect on how the government is run. A good example of a government run based on capitalism is the United States of America which brings together various states with each state being independent from others. On the other hand, the USSR endorsed communism which was based on mutual sharing of resources between its member states. Some of the countries which still practice communist include; China, North Korea and Cuba.

According to Bowman and Kennedy (5), both governments of California and Texas have the legislative, executive and the judiciary systems in their structures. Equally, all the two states’ executives are headed by the governor whose term in the office is a period of four years. Two states have elected governors as well as the lieutenant governors who are the first in line on succession. California state has a legislative assembly where the upper house has its 80 members who serve for the period of two terms. On the other hand, Texas legislature consists of the house representative that has 150 members. Its senate has 31 members. Finally, both the judiciaries have supreme courts in their systems even though Texas has other courts that are also involved in handling civil cases.

In conclusion, federal system government is so devolved and has a good structures, it can promote the unity among states. 

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