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Texas Annexation

The Formation of Texas

The resultant politics from the purchasing of Louisiana in 1803 led to the annexation of Texas. It became a matter of great concern between 1836 and 1845, a period when Texas became a state.  Anglo-Americans migrated to less densely populated Mexican Texas from southern United States following a request from the Mexican government (Richard, 2002).With time, they became the majority and they were dissatisfied with the Mexican rule.  A move by the Mexican government to free slaves, angered slave holders in the south and engineered war between Texas and Mexico for and Texas started to seek for independence. Border dispute arose between the Republic of Texas and Mexico (Eugene, 1946). Texas claimed the Rio Grande as its border, while Mexico claimed that Nuences River belonged to them. In 1836, Mumucan Hunt handed the annexation proposal to the Mexican government but was rejected on grounds that it would ignite war between Texas and Mexico. Texas later withdrew its demand in 1838 when Mirabeau Lamar came to power.

In 1841, death of US President William Harrison led to the succession by John Tyler. In 1843, the president supported annexation and entered negotiations with Texas. He believed it would be a warm welcome to the south as it would deter Britain from attaining its independence in return for abolishing slavery. The north strongly opposed annexation in fear of population increase and heightening the power of slavery in the area (Fehrenbach, 2000).

In 1843, Tyler strongly supported the annexation after his predecessor had opposed it.  He ignored Mexican demands to withdraw independence proposal, and went to Rio Grande, where he began building a fort near the river's mouth on the Gulf of Mexico. His actions were treated as lack of respect to the Mexican government (Eugene, 1946).

In June 1844, the treaty signed in Washington was rejected by the senate and passed to the congress (Eugene, 1946). It took the form of a joint resolution after consultation with James K. Polk, a democrat who was elected on grounds of promoting territory expansion by acquiring Texas and Oregon country. The resolutions state clearly that Texas would become a state if it approved its annexation by January 1st, 1846. The congress passed the joint resolution on February 26, 1845 where President Anson Jones of Texas was presented the American resolution by Andrew Jones and on 4th of July 1845. The American annexation was accepted immediately and the writing of the Texas state began. Both the new constitution and the annexation ordinance were approved by Texas citizens on 13th October 1845 and Polk took the initiative to sign the documents and integrate Texas into the United States on 29th December, 1845. The conclusion made by The United States supreme court  based in the case of DelimaV bidwell,182 U.S 1(1901), that annexation by a joint resolution of Congress was legal. John Calhoun, one of the supporters of Texas annexation strongly believed having Texas would unite the North and south and end slavery in the weakening institutions.

Long-term Effects of Annexation

First, the US government became overburdened in ruling its people. The North saw as an avenue of increasing the population of the area and the British government would chip in and try to control Texas state ( Harvey, 1911). Secondly, formal controversy arose about the legality of the annexation of Texas when the congress approved it as a territory with a simple majority vote as opposed of annexing the land by treaty. It outlined a major division between the south and the north that would last a long time. The southern that supported the movement would not accept slaves from the North (Adams, 1918).

The northerners were against the idea of annexation as this spread slavery into their territory. Most of them lost their jobs to slaves and became overpowered by the south due to its plantation systems. The south believed they were in control of racism (Fehrenbach, 2000).

The Mexican-American war started on 25th April, 1846 when a 2000 Mexican force attacked and destroyed a 70-man U.S. (Eugene, 1946) cavalry patrol in the north of the Rio Grande in a war that had many long-term effects. New states emerged and threatened the stability between states in support or against slavery. Each side was afraid of losing power to the other as this led to increased divisions between states The Mexican-American war also served as a training ground for many officers who would later lead men on both sides of the Civil War. Zachary Taylor was the president who spear headed the wars in America. After Van Buren of the north was replaced by James Polk a southerner, the north felt betrayed and cheated since they believed that power belonged to them. .They had a negative opinion towards the south as they fuelled slavery as the south attempted to stop them (Ray, 1956).

Short-term Effects of Texas Annexation

In the short run, Texas gave up its claim to territories such as New Mexico, Ultra, Atar, and Nevada to the United States but received debt relief, El Paso, and the Texas panhandle (Harvey, 1911). The South did not get Pacific territory in Southern California or extension of the Missouri as they expected and instead, they were compensated with a slave territory, a region which was not suitable for carrying out economic activity such as agriculture. Democratic Party was not also spared by the different stands, and in people’s opinion, it disintegrated the bond and togetherness in it (Alvin, 2010). Thirdly, Upshur gave a clear warning of Texas attracting slaves who will begin war with the south. Britain developed Texas as a cotton producing state affecting the southern economy and made the north lose markets for its goods (Richards, 2002).

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